Terson’s Syndrome – An Overview

  • Reading time:7 mins read
  • Post author:Nadeem Atwan
  • Post category:Article

Until recently, Terson’s syndrome (TS) was defined as the development of vitreous hemorrhage occurring in tandem with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the definition has been expanded to include SAH, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), traumatic brain injury, and any form of intracerebral hemorrhage (1). More than 90% of vitreous hemorrhage cases are caused by either direct trauma to the head and orbit or by diabetes; less than 6% are caused by Terson’s (2). TS affects men and women equally and has been reported in infants as young as 7 months of age (3,4). This article will serve as a brief summary on the proposed pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical implication, and management of TS.

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Porishkar: Addressing Global Blindness in a Post COVID-19 World

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Jahangir Alom
  • Post category:Article

More than 1,000,000 people in Bangladesh suffer from blindness; of that 74.6% are blind due to cataract and 18.7% due to refractive error. Across the country, there is only 32.8% coverage for cataract surgery services, 626 ophthalmologists and 618 mid-level eye care personnel. Hospitals with ophthalmic operating theatres are all based in major cities. The nearest eye care service to Beanibazar/Golapganj Upazila is an hour drive away either in Sylhet city or the Moulvibazar sub-district. There are no primary eye care services in the local region and the population have to rely on alternate medicine or informal healthcare provided by untrained local people. It is common practice to use eye drops for reduced vision over the age of 30.

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An Introduction to Gonioscopy

  • Reading time:12 mins read
  • Post author:Brendan Leng Yong Ji
  • Post category:Article

Gonioscopy is used to visualise the drainage angle of the anterior chamber. It is commonly utilised in the context of glaucoma to grade the anterior chamber angle and to diagnose angle closure. It is a vital skill for all ophthalmologists and good understanding is indispensable in ensuring prompt identification and diagnosis of angle closure.

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Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

  • Reading time:11 mins read
  • Post author:Nixon Phua Cher Yang, Priyal Taribagil
  • Post category:Article

Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome (PEX) is a systemic disease characterised by the deposition of extracellular fibrillary material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is often identified incidentally on slit lamp examination because patients are typically asymptomatic during initial stages. It is associated with raised intraocular pressure and development of secondary glaucoma. Due to the increased disposition of PEG, patients with PEG should be routinely monitored so that early interventions could be introduced to slow down the progression of glaucomatous changes.

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Dome Shaped Maculopathy 

  • Reading time:5 mins read
  • Post author:Brendan Leng Yong Ji, Diya Baker
  • Post category:Article

Dome shaped maculopathy (DSM) is a convex anterior protrusion of the macula into the vitreous cavity. DSM is commonly associated with high myopia and posterior staphyloma but can occur in emmetropia. DSM is thought to occur in 12% of highly myopic eyes but the exact population prevalence is currently unknown. The major complication of DSM is serous retinal detachment, likely secondary to subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation. DSM is an unusual, poorly understood yet relatively common disease that most Ophthalmologists will encounter in their practice.

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Central Retinal Artery Occlusion: An Overview

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Amal Minocha
  • Post category:Article

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) refers to a sudden blockage of the central retinal artery. It is an ophthalmic emergency that can result in profound visual impairment. The Central retinal artery (CRA) is a branch of the ophthalmic artery which is a branch of the internal carotid artery. The CRA is the main blood supply to the inner retinal layers whereas the outer retina is supplied by the choriocapillaris of the choroid which branches off the ciliary artery. CRAO has an incidence of 1 in 100,000 people and is responsible for 1 in 10,000 outpatient ophthalmology appointments. It most commonly affects patients over the age of 60 with men affected more than women. This article will provide a brief outline on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, investigations, and management of CRAO.

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  • Reading time:7 mins read
  • Post author:Mohaimen Al-Zubaidy & Mustafa Al-Zubaidy
  • Post category:Article

Pterygium, also known as surfer’s eye, is a common ocular surface disorder originating in the limbal conjunctiva within the palpebral fissure with progressive involvement of the cornea. The fibrovascular lesion occurs more often at the nasal limbus than the temporal limbus, adopting a characteristic wing-like appearance. In this article we will discuss the presentation of pterygium, its underlying pathophysiology and the diagnostic steps taken by clinicians to recognise pterygium as well as the management of these patients.

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Alzheimer’s Disease & the Eye – The Role of Beta Amyloid Deposition

  • Reading time:12 mins read
  • Post author:Priyal Taribagil
  • Post category:Article

Alzheimer’s disease has a significantly earlier onset and is uncommon. The gold standard means for confirmation of diagnosis is postmortem histological analysis. The presence of extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and intraneuronal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau are defining features of the disease. These pathological hallmarks help to differentiate Alzheimer’s disease from other forms of dementia, which present with similar clinical symptoms. The fundamental problem with diagnosing the condition is that the pre-clinical stage remains unnoticed as characteristic indicators that allow early diagnosis are yet to be discovered (3). The emergence of the retina as a “window to the brain” has prompted a new means for detecting the disease. As the retina is anatomically and developmentally an extension of the central nervous system, changes in its structure could reflect brain pathology. The remainder of this paper focuses on discussing beta amyloid deposition in the retina as a means for potential early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

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Episcleritis & Scleritis: A comparison

  • Reading time:13 mins read
  • Post author:Loay Nawaz Rahman
  • Post category:Article

Episcleritis is a benign inflammatory condition affecting the episcleral layer, the outermost layer of the sclera of the eye. There are two main types of episcleritis, nodular and simple. Nodular episcleritis accounts for 30% of cases and presents with a discrete elevated area of inflamed tissue (nodule) in the episcleral layer surrounded by dilated blood vessels. Simple episcleritis also presents with a red eye and dilated blood vessels but not an elevated area of inflamed tissue. It is subdivided into two groups; diffuse simple episcleritis, where the inflammation is generalised, and sectoral simple episcleritis, where the inflammation is restricted to one region.

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Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Brief Overview

  • Reading time:7 mins read
  • Post author:Nixon Phua Cher Yang
  • Post category:Article

Retinal vein occlusion is a common retinal vascular disease and cause of visual loss. Depending on the location of obstruction, it can be classified into central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and hemi-retinal vein occlusion (HRVO). The condition is labelled as CRVO if the blockage of central retinal vein takes place at the lamina cribrosa. Based on the area of capillary non-perfusion, CRVO can be sub-divided into ischaemic and non-ischaemic types. Ischaemic CRVO is defined by the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study (CVOS) as CRVO with fluorescein angiographic evidence of >10 disc areas of capillary nonperfusion on seven-field fundus fluorescein angiography.

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