Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disease that encompasses a spectrum of hereditary conditions caused by shared physiological processes that lead to retinal degeneration (1). In RP, genes that encode proteins responsible for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function get mutated. More than 100 genetic mutations have been implicated in RP, causing a loss of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina through apoptosis (1). Initially, rod photoreceptors are predominantly affected, followed later by degeneration of cones (rod-cone dystrophy) (2).
Bacterial endophthalmitis describes inflammation of the vitreous secondary to bacterial colonisation. It is an ophthalmic emergency requiring prompt treatment to increase the chance of preserving sight and saving the eye. It is categorised as exogenous or endogenous in origin. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is rare, resulting from the haematogenous spread of bacteria from systemic infection. Exogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, however, results from the introduction of bacteria from the ocular surface or an external source into the eye. This can occur post-operatively, following a penetrating ocular trauma, or after an intra-ocular procedure such as intravitreal injections.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an ophthalmic disorder that arises in premature infants, particularly those born before 32 weeks gestation, or who weigh less than 1,500 grams at birth. In many children, it is mild and presents no problems, but can also be severe and lead to blindness. In the 1940s, it was the leading cause of blindness in children in the US and, unfortunately, it still remains a leading cause of blindness in children worldwide.
This case report follows the case of a 27 year old female who presented to her optometrist with a 10-day history of floaters in her left eye. The optometrist noted papilloedema and she was advised to attend the Emergency Department for further assessment and imaging. A CT brain showed no acute intracranial findings, however upon examination a left swollen disc was noted and the right pupil was unreactive to light. She was referred to eye casualty for specialist input. Her visual acuity was 0.16 in her right eye and 0.42 in her left eye. Ishihara plates could be read fully. Pupillary reflexes were normal in the left eye however the patient reported that the right eye has been unreactive since birth.
Dome shaped maculopathy (DSM) is a convex anterior protrusion of the macula into the vitreous cavity. DSM is commonly associated with high myopia and posterior staphyloma but can occur in emmetropia. DSM is thought to occur in 12% of highly myopic eyes but the exact population prevalence is currently unknown. The major complication of DSM is serous retinal detachment, likely secondary to subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation. DSM is an unusual, poorly understood yet relatively common disease that most Ophthalmologists will encounter in their practice.
Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes, where high blood glucose damages the small blood vessels throughout the body, including in the retina. These damaged blood vessels are prone to blood and fluid leakage resulting in retinal tissue swelling. In order to compensate for these blocked vessels, the eye facilitates growth of new abnormal blood vessels that tend to leak and bleed easily.
Idiopathic macular holes (MHs) are most prevalent in the sixth and seventh decade of life with approximately two-thirds of patients being female, and can significantly impact patients’ quality of life. Although the aetiology is unknown, a range of risk factors have been proposed including; myopia, retinal detachment, hypertension and diabetic retinopathy.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a well-characterised disease responsible for being the principal cause of visual impairment in elderly patients (1). Generally, it is subdivided into two categories: ‘dry’ and ‘wet’. Dry AMD is more common than wet AMD, accounting for more than 85% of AMD cases (2). However, the severity of wet AMD is such that it is responsible for 80% of cases with severe visual impairment (2).
Intravitreal injection is the delivery of a drug via needle directly into the vitreous humour. This is useful in conditions where there is retinal oedema such as in wet AMD, diabetic macular oedema, or retinal vein occlusion. In these conditions, drugs such as Anti-VEGF or corticosteroids are injected intravitreally.