Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disease that encompasses a spectrum of hereditary conditions caused by shared physiological processes that lead to retinal degeneration (1). In RP, genes that encode proteins responsible for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function get mutated. More than 100 genetic mutations have been implicated in RP, causing a loss of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina through apoptosis (1). Initially, rod photoreceptors are predominantly affected, followed later by degeneration of cones (rod-cone dystrophy) (2).
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is defined as a spectrum of hereditary disorders affecting the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, leading to progressive peripheral visual loss and night blindness. Retinitis pigmentosa is a leading cause of blindness worldwide and currently, many therapeutic challenges stand in the way of an approved therapy to stop degeneration and restore vision. pigmentosa, its underlying pathophysiology and the diagnostic steps taken by clinicians to recognise RP as well as the management of these patients.