Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disease that encompasses a spectrum of hereditary conditions caused by shared physiological processes that lead to retinal degeneration (1). In RP, genes that encode proteins responsible for photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function get mutated. More than 100 genetic mutations have been implicated in RP, causing a loss of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina through apoptosis (1). Initially, rod photoreceptors are predominantly affected, followed later by degeneration of cones (rod-cone dystrophy) (2).
Bacterial endophthalmitis describes inflammation of the vitreous secondary to bacterial colonisation. It is an ophthalmic emergency requiring prompt treatment to increase the chance of preserving sight and saving the eye. It is categorised as exogenous or endogenous in origin. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is rare, resulting from the haematogenous spread of bacteria from systemic infection. Exogenous bacterial endophthalmitis, however, results from the introduction of bacteria from the ocular surface or an external source into the eye. This can occur post-operatively, following a penetrating ocular trauma, or after an intra-ocular procedure such as intravitreal injections.
Haemolacria is defined as having blood in the tears. It is an extremely rare phenomenon and is both concerning for physicians and, as you can imagine, the patients and their families. It was first noted in the literature in the 6th century and then 1000 years later in the 16th century. Since then there have been very few cases that have been reported in the literature. Due to the limited literature and number of cases of haemolacria there is no known pattern or prevalence of the condition within any given demographic. There have, however, been a number of different causes and associations of haemolacria which will be mentioned below.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a discipline within computer science which aims to develop tools capable of undertaking tasks that usually require human intellect. Coined by the Computer Scientist John McCarthy in 1956, AI has been likened to the industrial revolution. It has played a pivotal role in the growth of many key industries, ranging from the financial sector to manufacturing. Seamlessly integrated into our daily lives; it is used to recommend products when shopping online, suggest films based on our preferences when binge-watching Amazon Prime and recognise speech when calling an automated call centre.
Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed procedure within the National Health Service (1). In most cases, the intended post-operative visual outcome is emmetropia, which is significantly influenced by the intraocular lens (IOL) power calculated and selected by the surgeon (2). The capsular bag is the preferred position for IOL implantation due to its stability and proximity to the position of the native lens (3). The most common intraoperative complication of cataract surgery is posterior capsular (PC) rupture (1). This is one instance in which placement of the IOL in the ciliary sulcus, rather than the capsular bag, may be necessary, in addition to other situations such as cases of zonular laxity (3). The Royal College of Ophthalmologists state in their cataract guidance that back-up lenses should be available in theatre in case non-capsular bag fixation is required (4).
Ophthalmology is a rewarding and exciting career that attracts many applicants each year. The recruitment process is overseen by Severn deanery and applications open at the beginning of November each year on Oriel. Applicants are ranked by their cumulative score of portfolio points, MSRA scores and interview scores. Severn deanery has published the portfolio scoring for the recruitment this year and there have been substantial changes overall. This article will go through the changes for each section and provide useful tips to score points.
Isotretinoin is a retinoid and derivative of vitamin A used to treat severe recalcitrant acne vulgaris. By affecting the cell cycle, cell differentiation, survival, and apoptosis it reduces sebum production, prevents the blockage of pores, and growth of acne-causing bacteria. Additionally, isotretinoin may interact with FoxO1, which may explain a substantial number of isotretinoin's unexplained actions.
The Duke Elder Examination is an annual prize examination run by the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, targeted to undergraduate medical students with a special interest in Ophthalmology. It is a prestigious award, one of only two Ophthalmology awards which can only be achieved as an undergraduate: The Duke Elder exam, and The Patrick Trever-Roper Undergraduate Travel Award. It is a great opportunity for medical students to add valuable points to their portfolio, while simultaneously expanding their knowledge in an area not well covered in most undergraduate curriculums.
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension is a neurological disorder caused by raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure without any known intracranial abnormalities or secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. In this review, we consider the pathophysiology/aetiology, risk factors, how it presents and the general management of the condition.
The femtolaser has emerged as a novel method to conduct anterior segment surgery in ophthalmology, including deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery. There are certain advantages the femtolaser may have, as compared to manual/conventional methods for DALK corneal transplant surgery. This literature review aims to identify both observational and interventional studies within femto-DALK literature, and as such, discuss indications, surgical techniques, outcomes and scope for further research in the area. Studies were identified via thorough online database text word searching.