Direct ophthalmoscopy (fundoscopy) is a technique to examine the back of the eye. It is referred to as direct because the retinal image formed is erect/upright (1,2). This type of examination magnifies the retinal image inspected by approximately 15 times. Direct ophthalmoscopy is an extremely useful tool for detecting retinal, vascular, optic disc and choroidal pathologies. Hence, it has been an important form of examination that is not only taught to trainees but also to undergraduate medical students.
The retina is one of the few parts of the central nervous system observable from the exterior. The direct ophthalmoscope enables the user to screen the wellbeing of the retina, optic nerve, vasculature and vitreous humour, with the examination generating an upright image of 10-15 times magnification. Fundoscopic examination can identify pathological process otherwise invisible and is a useful tool in staging the degree of both diabetes and hypertension. The direct ophthalmoscope is still an important instrument for fundoscopic examination in clinical practice.