Fuchs’ Dystrophy: An Overview

  • Reading time:9 mins read
  • Post author:Moussa Al-Rufayie
  • Post category:Article

Fuchs’ dystrophy, a progressive disorder affecting the cornea, is a condition characterised by the gradual deterioration of endothelial cells in the cornea, leading to vision impairment and, in severe cases, blindness. Ernst Fuchs, an Austrian ophthalmologist, first described the dystrophy in 1910. His detailed observations laid the groundwork for understanding the disease's clinical and pathological features. Initially, there were no effective treatments, and patients often faced significant vision loss. The primary management strategies involved symptomatic relief through hypertonic saline drops and ointments to reduce corneal oedema temporarily.

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DSEK and DMEK: Advanced Corneal Transplant Techniques

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Moussa Al-Rufayie
  • Post category:Article

Corneal transplantation has seen significant advancements in recent years, with Descemet's Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK) and Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) at the forefront. These techniques offer improved outcomes and faster recovery times compared to traditional full-thickness corneal transplants. This article explores the differences between DSEK and DMEK, highlighting their respective advantages and applications.

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Birdshot Chorioretinopathy: An Overview

  • Reading time:9 mins read
  • Post author:Jessica Mendall
  • Post category:Article

Birdshot chorioretinopathy (also known as birdshot retinochoroidopathy, vitiliginous chorioretinitis or birdshot uveitis) is a cause of chronic and bilateral posterior uveitis. It is characterised by yellow-white hypopigmented fundus lesions, and results in a gradual decline in visual acuity over time. The disease was first described as “candle wax spot chorioretinopathy” in 1949 by two ophthalmologists, Franceschetti and Babel, referring to a case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with discrete hypopigmented lesions. It was not until 1980 that two other ophthalmologists, Ryan and Maumenee, used the term “birdshot” to describe the scatter pattern of cream-coloured retinal lesions seen in the condition that resemble the pattern seen when pellets are fired from a shotgun.

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Tattoo-Associated Uveitis

  • Reading time:8 mins read
  • Post author:Jessica Mendall
  • Post category:Article

Tattoo-associated uveitis is a rare condition that was first described in a case series by Lubeck and Epstein in 1952. It is characterised by uveitis developing after obtaining a tattoo, with or without granulomatous inflammation of the tattoo. Tattoo-associated uveitis can be broadly divided into three categories: cases occurring without systemic sarcoid involvement (10-20%); cases with a sarcoid-like reaction limited to the tattoo (20-30%); and cases concurrently diagnosed with distant cutaneous or systemic sarcoidosis, with or without tattoo involvement (50-60%).

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iGLEAMS 3 – The 3rd East Anglian Glaucoma Microsurgical Symposium

  • Reading time:5 mins read
  • Post author:Chrysostomos Dimitriou
  • Post category:Article

30 September 2024 – 1 October 2024 iGLEAMS is a pioneering 2-day ophthalmology conference dedicated to the innovative realm of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MiGS), fostering a vibrant platform for the exchange of knowledge, ideas, and advancements in this rapidly evolving field.

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Oculomotor nerve palsy

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Mohd Alhalki
  • Post category:Article

The oculomotor cranial nerve has 2 major components which collectively control eye movements, pupil constriction, and upper eyelid elevation. Accordingly, third nerve palsy will cause diplopia, failure of pupil constriction, and upper eyelid ptosis. Third nerve palsy can be divided into a partial or complete palsy and has a variety of causes which can be life-threatening.

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Keratoconus: A Short Review

  • Reading time:5 mins read
  • Post author:Usman Raja
  • Post category:Article

Keratoconus is a progressive condition, usually presenting bilaterally, that affects the cornea. It leads to the thinning and bulging of the cornea which eventually causes the cornea to become cone shaped. It has a detrimental impact on the patient’s vision. The word keratoconus is derived from Greek and it means ‘cone-shaped’ cornea, with John Nottingham widely acknowledged as the first to define the condition in 1854. Studies that have investigated its epidemiology have estimated prevalence at between 1.5 and 25 per 100,000 people per year, however there is huge variance due to reasons such as geographical location, ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria used to identify keratoconus.

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Through the Looking Glass: The Use of AI in Ophthalmology

  • Reading time:13 mins read
  • Post author:Sivanthi Kanagasundaram
  • Post category:Article

Since the launch of ChatGPT, the term “Artificial Intelligence” (AI) is now used colloquially.  Although its launch has catalysed its eminence, AI has slowly seeped its way into society over the past few decades. One of its first avatars was in the form of a navigation system that guided individuals from point A to B, saving travellers from the panic that ensued with reading an A-to-Z map. It later appeared in the form of Siri, whose witty comebacks offered amusement. It is now knocking on the doors of Medicine. With careful consideration of ethical dilemmas, its new incarnation in Medicine, specifically in the field of Ophthalmology, could be ground-breaking.

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An Introduction to Optic Neuropathy

  • Reading time:7 mins read
  • Post author:Youstina Metry
  • Post category:Article

Neuropathy is a condition where nerve damage occurs due to a variety of reasons, leading to pain, weakness or altered sensation depending on the nerve injured. Optic neuropathy, or sometimes termed as optic atrophy (end stage of optic neuropathy), is the damage to the optic nerve anywhere along its path from the retina to the lateral geniculate.

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Three Important Tests in Ophthalmology

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Usman Raja
  • Post category:Article

Assessment of patients in ophthalmology typically involves taking a history and an examination.  History taking is important in the evaluation of patients as it provides information that can lead to the identification and treatment of the ophthalmic condition. For example, identifying systemic conditions that the patient may suffer from, medications that the patient uses and family history. Ophthalmologists typically ask the patient to describe their vision and the visual symptoms that they may suffer from. Whilst having a subjective understanding of a patient’s vision is important, testing it using objective means as well as assessing the eye is also necessary especially when monitoring in chronic conditions.

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