Neonatal ophthalmic pathologies should be identified as early as possible in order to address problems before they progress and become irreversible. In the UK, this is made achievable by the standard Newborn Infant Physical Examination. This comprises an assessment looking for external structural abnormalities in the eye which may inform a number of genetic syndromes, identifying the red reflex, direct ophthalmoscopy and other tests. This article aims to provide an overview of the manifestations of congenital eye infections and their management.
Eyesight is often regarded as the most valuable human sense. Thus, the identification and prevention of ophthalmic pathologies in neonates is a key component of the newborn examination in order to commence the management of ophthalmic conditions before they persist and lead to irreversible damage. In the UK, the standard Newborn Infant Physical Examination (NIPE) comprises an assessment of the eye in order to identify features such as abnormal eye movements, decreased visual acuity and symmetry of gaze that may point to early pathologies. As practitioners, it is important to identify signs that warrant further specialist examination, with appropriate follow-up, or features that can actually be normal in infants and children to reassure parents and caregivers. This article aims to provide an overview of this examination.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are defined as diseases that mainly affect individuals living in the most deprived populations globally and continue to persist as a consequence of poverty. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that greater than 1.7 billion individuals are affected by NTDs, largely in countries of lower to middle-income or low-income. Several factors influence the persistence of NTDs including inadequate data regarding the conditions, poor political support, ineffective ways to remove human waste safely, and limited availability of clean water. There are 20 currently listed NTDs. Several NTDs can impact eye health such as blinding trachoma and onchocerciasis (river blindness) which table 1 outlines. This article provides an overview of the WHO initiatives to manage trachoma and onchocerciasis, two NTDs that can affect the eyes.
As clinical teaching fellows, we have had the privilege to teach medical students between August 2020 to August 2021. In a usual year, this would involve exclusively face-to-face teaching for both lectures and clinical examination sessions. However, following the announcement of the second lockdown in October 2020 we had to adapt our programme. To reduce the number of students on site, one day a week became a ‘virtual learning day’, involving both small and large group tutorials. Following being tasked with the responsibility of teaching ophthalmology to the fourth-year medical students, an important question loomed: how can we ensure that teaching via a virtual learning platform is both engaging and beneficial? This was further compounded by the fact that ophthalmology is a sub-speciality in which most medical students have limited teaching in the UK . Following our experiences, we have outlined the key strategies which enabled us to teach effectively during the pandemic.
Corneal disease and pathology is the 5th leading cause of blindness worldwide. As the cornea possesses inert immune-privilege, corneal transplantation is a highly successful way of improving clinical outcomes. The history of corneal transplantation goes back decades with the first successful human allograft and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) being performed in 1905. Since then there has been a tremendous amount of development with introduction of newer surgical techniques and instrument devices.