PVD is a common condition that all clinicians may encounter throughout their career. It is important to know the relevant symptoms so that we can counsel patients and to appropriately refer to rule out sinister causes.
If you’re a final year medical student thinking about how to rank your foundation jobs, first of all congratulations for making this far! We all know ranking foundation jobs can be tough and stressful. The choices you make will potentially have a great impact on what area you specialise in. Thinking about a career in ophthalmology? This article serves to give you some insight into a foundation job in ophthalmology and hopefully guide you along your decision.
Direct ophthalmoscopy (fundoscopy) is a technique to examine the back of the eye. It is referred to as direct because the retinal image formed is erect/upright (1,2). This type of examination magnifies the retinal image inspected by approximately 15 times. Direct ophthalmoscopy is an extremely useful tool for detecting retinal, vascular, optic disc and choroidal pathologies. Hence, it has been an important form of examination that is not only taught to trainees but also to undergraduate medical students.
Alice Ditchfield Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis primarily affects immunocompromised individuals. It causes full-thickness retinal necrosis and viral inclusion bodies are seen in infected cells. Patients present with painless vision loss…
Angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) is a condition that leads to optic nerve neurodegeneration caused by increased intraocular pressure (IOP). It’s an ophthalmic emergency that may cause irreversible visual impairment if left untreated. ACG causes can be classified into Primary and Secondary causes. This article will focus on Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG). In this article, we will briefly outline the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of acute PACG.
Visual snow is a newly recognised condition that presents with debilitating visual symptoms. Historically, due to the lack of clinical criteria, many patients have been misdiagnosed or had a significant delay in diagnosis. This article is aimed at improving understanding and recognition of visual snow amongst clinicians.
Presenting research in a medical conference can seemingly be a daunting task for many medical students and junior doctors. Medical conferences are, after all, attended by experts and specialists from the various fields which can be unnerving for the naïve presenter. However, for most doctors, who have an interest in research, delivering presentations in conferences is often inevitable. Here I present my top tips to consider when preparing an oral presentation at a medical conference.
Keratoconus is an ectasia in which progressive thinning and cone-shaped distortion of the cornea result in worsening vision through increasing myopia and astigmatism. Age at diagnosis is usually between 15 and 30 years however it has been suggested that keratoconus is often more advanced if first diagnosed in childhood and progresses more quickly. The estimated prevalence of keratoconus is 1.38 per 1000 population (2). Risk factors include family history of keratoconus, eye rubbing and atopic conditions. Patients may experience a reduction in visual acuity and distortion of the visual field. Keratoconus is diagnosed through keratometry, the measurement of the curvature, thickness and steepness of the cornea with computerised corneal topography.
Clinicians working in emergency medicine (EM), general practice (GP) and general medicine are frequently expected to review, assess and manage those presenting with ophthalmic complaints. They are in many instances the gatekeepers to accessing secondary ophthalmological care services. Often these clinicians have received only undergraduate teaching on ophthalmology and infrequently utilise their skills with ophthalmological equipment such as fundoscopes and rarely a slit lamp. Due to this, clinician confidence in managing ophthalmological issues is often poor.
I attended the course in September 2022. The course was beneficial for me as it allowed me to gain hands-on experience using the microscope, working with ophthalmic instruments, and familiarising myself with common ophthalmological surgical techniques. The course has in the past contributed 1 point towards the ST1 Ophthalmology portfolio – the latest version of the Ophthalmology ST1 evidence folder states 1 point will be awarded for ‘Evidence of other ophthalmology simulation training’. The course also incorporates spending time on the EyeSi surgical simulator. Having the opportunity to use the EyeSi is beneficial for trainees as they need to complete the available modules throughout their training, whilst those doctors/students wanting to apply for Ophthalmology training, completing 4 hours on the simulator also contributes 1 point towards the portfolio.