Immune Privilege in the Eye

  • Reading time:13 mins read
  • Post author:Jiawu Zhao, Lawrence Quach, Clare Carney
  • Post category:Article

In our bodies, there are several tissues that can limit their inflammatory reactions. These tissues are, the eye, brain, testes, placenta, and foetus (3, 4). However, the question is, why does IP exist in these tissues specifically? Taking the eye as an example, its function relies on the clarity of the visual axis and constituent tissues such as the corneal endothelium and some elements of the retina, which are amitotic and unable to regenerate. Thus, collateral damage from inflammatory responses would lead to severe consequences.

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Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy – An Overview

  • Reading time:4 mins read
  • Post author:Satya Maripi
  • Post category:Article

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common ophthalmological mitochondrial disorders, characterised by optic neuropathies resulting in bilateral central vision loss. A point mutation in mitochondrial DNA, most common being G3460, G11778A and T14484C, results in disruption of the retinal ganglionic cells due to dysregulation of the respiratory chain. The worldwide prevalence since it was first described in 1858 is approximately 1 in 50,000. As it is a mitochondrial disorder, it mainly effects young males in their second or third decade of life with males being 5 times more likely to be afflicted.

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An Overview of Benign Essential Blepharospasm

  • Reading time:9 mins read
  • Post author:Nour Houbby, Osama Munajjed
  • Post category:Article

Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal dystonia relating to the involuntary contraction of the orbicularis oculi, procerus and corrugator muscles. The exact pathophysiology underlying benign essential blepharospasm remains unknown, although both genetic and environmental components are thought to underly the development of benign essential blepharospasm. This precipitates an abnormal and repetitive bilateral eyelid closure which results in functional blindness and significantly impacts patient morbidity and quality of life.

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Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK) in Keratoconus: A Case Report

  • Reading time:8 mins read
  • Post author:Sarah Kher-Alla, Saeed Azizi, Adnaan Haq
  • Post category:Article

Keratoconus is a progressive, non-inflammatory eye disorder leading to corneal thinning and irregular astigmatism. The cornea is the window of the eye, which acts as a covering of its anterior chamber and refracts approximately 60% of the light entering the eye. Keratoconus is marked by thinning and projection of the cornea; which can progress to lead to high myopia and asymmetrical astigmatism.  This condition has an incidence of one in two thousand, is most common in early adolescence and is believed to be caused by a combination of genetics, as well as environmental influence such as allergens.

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Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: An Overview

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Eleni Kottaridou
  • Post category:Article

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, also known as CSC, is thought to occur due to choroidal hyperpermeability which leads to sub-RPE and subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation. It is the fourth most common retinopathy after age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion.

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Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Fluoroquinolone Use

  • Reading time:19 mins read
  • Post author:Muhammad Yousuf Hayat, Ahmed Shah Nazari, Ahsan Rashid
  • Post category:Article

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are amongst some of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for respiratory and urinary tract infections. Despite their utility in clinical medicine, concern has grown regarding the side effect profile on multiple organ systems. This report details the case of a 22-year-old Asian male who suffered musculoskeletal and ocular side effects of oral Ciprofloxacin therapy – namely flashes and floaters as well as dry eyes. No causes were identified on examination for this presentation and with time his symptoms gradually improved. Due to the known effects of fluoroquinolones on connective tissues, effects on the autonomic nervous system and chelation of various minerals, namely Magnesium and Zinc, postulated mechanisms as to why this young man and many others experience such symptoms are put forward in this case report.

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How to Make the Most of an Ophthalmology Taster Week

  • Reading time:5 mins read
  • Post author:Azeem Mustafa Sher
  • Post category:Article

These are my top tips for arranging an Ophthalmology taster week as a Foundation doctor. Completing a taster week contributes one point towards your Ophthalmology portfolio and the experience can determine whether or not you proceed to apply for an ST1 post in Ophthalmology. Hopefully, by following my advice you can collect more than the one point on offer and improve your chances of gaining a training number.

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Iridoschisis: A Novel Case Report and Literature Review

  • Reading time:11 mins read
  • Post author:Diya Baker, Hisham Hamze and Abhijit Mohite
  • Post category:Article

An 87-year old African-Caribbean lady presented with a  two week history of severe right ocular pain, worse in the evenings. The patient had previously been diagnosed to have asymptomatic iridoschisis in 2007 and attended the diabetic retinopathy screening service annually. There was no known family history of eye disease.

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Lack of ophthalmology education – is this one of the reasons why our Urgent Eye Clinics are so busy?

  • Reading time:6 mins read
  • Post author:Hannah Whelan
  • Post category:Article

Referrals to the Urgent Eye Clinic (UEC) are rising, leading to an increased demand on services. Many of these referrals are deemed as non-urgent. One method of referral to the UEC is via Accident and Emergency (A&E). In some areas in the country, patients who present to A&E with an acute eye problem will be initially seen by A&E clinicians and be referred to the UEC to be reviewed by ophthalmologists. As a foundation doctor working in ophthalmology, it has been clear that many referrals from A&E have been inappropriate. These have included blepharitis, conjunctivitis and deterioration in vision over the course of a few months being referred to the weekend UEC. I have witnessed all three of these referral examples. Inappropriate referrals from A&E and General Practices lead to increased demand on the UEC.

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The Impact of Covid-19 on Ophthalmic care: Are we ready for the aftermath?

  • Reading time:10 mins read
  • Post author:Wei Han Ong
  • Post category:Article

While serious eye conditions remained prioritised, many patients were too fearful to attend essential clinic appointments. Statistics showed that there was a 79% reduction in ophthalmic appointments in the UK (the highest of any medical specialty) during the pandemic. It is estimated that more than three thousand people have lost vision due to delays in the identification and treatment of eye disease during the pandemic (2). The pandemic crisis will end, sooner or later but the real challenge remains: the episodes of avoidable sight loss that may have occurred due to backlog of services.

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